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Eruption forensics

How do scientists detect eruptions at deep-sea volcanoes?

An image from Google Earth showing the linear feature of the East Pacific Rise mid-ocean Ridge Folds of glossy black lava abut older, greyer lava. Image courtesy of Dan Fornari Mike Perfit holds a fragment of glassy volcanic rock about the size of a walnut. Image courtesy of Ken Rubin Ocean Bottom Seismometer being launched over the side of the ship. Image courtesy of L. Goehring 24 men and women on the deck of the research ship. Image courtesy of M. Lilley Just the top of the OBS is visible; the rest is covered with black lava. Image courtesy of D. Fornari et al.
Two scientists wearing fluorescent life vests on a tilting deck. Image courtesy of Eric Simms Two crew members guide the TowCam assembly over the side of the research vessel. Image courtesy of Dan Fornari A huge A-frame suspends the submersible over the calm ocean. Image courtesy of C. Taylor